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From: Danielle (
Subject: Info on BKT HEALTH RISKS
Date: July 24, 2007 at 11:01 am PST

I have found several pieces of information on BKT and formaldehyde.. So far this is the best I have come up with in terms of speaking about formadehyde and actual AMOUNTS in the air. This informaiton was taken from NationMonster.com's encylopedia

Problem is.. how do we know the ppm's(parts per million) of formadehyde in the air during the process. And what's considered to be a "high concentration" in the air??? Lower in the article it says that the European Union is considering a COMPLETE ban of formadelhyde in products

Health effects
High amounts of formaldehyde can be toxic. Because formaldehyde resins are used in many construction materials, including plywood and spray-on insulating foams, and because these resins slowly give off formaldehyde over time, formaldehyde is one of the more common indoor air pollutants. At concentrations above 0.1 ppm in air, formaldehyde can irritate the eyes and mucous membranes, resulting in watery eyes. If inhaled, formaldehyde at this concentration may cause headaches, a burning sensation in the throat, and difficulty breathing, as well as triggering or aggravating asthma symptoms.[3] The United States Environmental Protection Agency USEPA allows no more than 0.016 ppm formaldehyde in the air in new buildings constructed for that agency[4] The mucous membranes (or mucosae; singular: mucosa) are linings of mostly endodermal origin, covered in epithelium, and are involved in absorption and secretion. ... “EPA” redirects here. ...

Large formaldehyde exposures, for example from drinking formaldehyde solutions, are potentially deadly. Formaldehyde is converted to formic acid in the body, leading to a rise in blood acidity (acidosis), rapid, shallow breathing, blurred vision or complete blindness, hypothermia, and, in the most severe cases, coma or death. People who have ingested formaldehyde require immediate medical attention. Formic acid (systematically called methanoic acid) is the simplest carboxylic acid. ... Acidosis is an increased acidity (i. ... Hypothermia refers to any condition in which the temperature of a body drops below the level required for normal metabolism and/or bodily function to take place. ... In medicine, a coma (from the Greek koma, meaning deep sleep) is a profound state of unconsciousness. ...

In the body, formaldehyde can cause proteins to irreversibly bind to DNA. Laboratory animals exposed to large doses of inhaled formaldehyde over their lifetimes have developed more cancers of the nose and throat than are usual, as have workers in particle-board sawmills. However, some studies suggest that smaller concentrations of formaldehyde like those encountered in most buildings have no carcinogenic effects[citation needed]. Formaldehyde is classified as a probable human carcinogen by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and as having sufficient evidence that formaldehyde causes nasopharyngeal cancer in humans by the International Agency for Research on Cancer.[5] Several European countries restrict the use of formaldehyde, including the import of formaldehyde-treated products and embalming, and the European Union is considering a complete ban on formaldehyde usage (including embalming), subject to a review of List 4B of the Technical Annex to the Report from the Commission to the European Parliament and the Council on the Evaluation of the Active Substances of Plant Protection Products by the European Commission Services. Countries with a strong tradition of embalming corpses, such as Ireland and other colder weather countries, have raised concerns. A representation of the 3D structure of myoglobin, showing coloured alpha helices. ... The structure of part of a DNA double helix Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is a nucleic acid that contains the genetic instructions for the development and function of living organisms. ... Cancer is a class of diseases or disorders characterized by uncontrolled division of cells and the ability of these to spread, either by direct growth into adjacent tissue through invasion, or by implantation into distant sites by metastasis (where cancer cells are transported through the bloodstream or lymphatic system). ... A sawmill is a facility where logs are cut into boards. ... The hazard symbol for carcinogenic chemicals in the Globally Harmonized System. ... The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC, or CIRC in its French acronym) is an intergovernmental agency forming part of the World Health Organisation of the United Nations. ...

Formaldehyde can cause allergies, and is part of the standard patch test series. People with formaldehyde allergy are advised to avoid formaldehyde-releasing chemicals as well (e.g. Quaternium-15, imidazolidinyl urea, and diazolidinyl urea).[6] Quaternium-15 Quaternium-15 is a preservative found in many cosmetics and industrial substances that releases formaldehyde. ... Diazolidinyl urea (C8H14N4O7) is a preservative. ...

[edit] Occupational Health and Safety
Formaldehyde is mainly produced by the oxidation of methanol, itself obtained from natural gas. It is primarily used to produce glues used in the manufacture of particleboard, veneers, wood furniture and other wood products. Formaldehyde is also used in the manufacture of various plastics, some fertilizers, resins used in foundry sand moulds, and some paints and varnishes. The textile industry uses these resins as finishers to make fabrics crease-resistant. The substance is also used in the synthesis of other chemical products and for its bactericidal properties in many formulations of disinfectant products, cosmetics, embalming fluids and solutions for preserving biological tissues. Methanol, also known as methyl alcohol, carbinol, wood alcohol, wood naptha or wood spirits, is a chemical compound with chemical formula CH3OH. It is the simplest alcohol, and is a light, volatile, colourless, flammable, poisonous liquid with a distinctive odor that is somewhat milder and sweeter than ethanol (ethyl alcohol). ... Natural gas is a gaseous fossil fuel consisting primarily of methane but including significant quantities of ethane, butane, propane, carbon dioxide, nitrogen, helium and hydrogen sulfide. ... Particle board is a material manufactured from wood particles (e. ... A veneer is a thin covering over something. ... Fertilizers are chemicals given to plants with the intention of promoting growth; they are usually applied either via the soil or by foliar spraying. ... Resin is a hydrocarbon secretion formed in special resin canals of many plants, from many of which (for example, coniferous trees) it is exuded in soft drops from wounds, hardening into solid masses in the air. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Textile manufacturing. ... A bacteriocide or bactericide is a substance that kills bacteria and, preferably, nothing else. ... Disinfection of a floor using a mop Disinfectants are antimicrobial agents that are applied to non-living objects to destroy microorganisms, the process of which is known as disinfection. ... For other uses, see Cosmetic. ... Embalming, in most modern cultures, is the art and science of temporarily preserving human remains to forestall decomposition and make it suitable for display at a funeral. ...

Occupational exposure to formaldehyde by inhalation is mainly from three types of sources: thermal or chemical decomposition of formaldehyde-based resins, formaldehyde emission from aqueous solutions (for example, embalming fluids), or the production of formaldehyde resulting from the combustion of a variety of organic compounds (for example, exhaust gases). Thermal decomposition is a chemical reaction where a chemical substance breaks up into at least two chemical substances when heated. ... Chemical decomposition or analysis is the fragmentation of a chemical compound into elements or smaller compounds. ... Drinking water This article focuses on water as we experience it every day. ... A combustion reaction taking place in a igniting match Combustion or burning is a complex sequence of exothermic chemical reactions between a fuel and an oxidant accompanied by the production of heat or both heat and light in the form of either a glow or flames. ...

In the workplace, exposure to formaldehyde occurs in various ways. In its gaseous form, it is absorbed by the respiratory tract; in aqueous solution, it is absorbed through skin contact. The health effects associated with exposure to this substance vary with the exposure route and the concentration or dose absorbed. In humans the respiratory tract is the part of the anatomy that has to do with the process of respiration or breathing. ...

In extreme situations such as accidents, formaldehyde may be present at high concentrations in the air, representing a considerable immediate danger. Concentrations equal to or greater than 20 ppm can cause serious pulmonary oedema and eventually death. In the case of direct skin contact, formaldehyde may produce skin lesions such as irritation, irritant contact dermatitis and allergic contact dermatitis. The symptoms are itching, tingling and redness. Skin sensitization is likely to appear after contact with aqueous solutions of formaldehyde at concentrations equal to or greater than 2%, or even solids or resins containing free formaldehyde. When someone is sensitized, skin allergy (erythema) symptoms may occur at every contact with solutions of increasingly lower concentration (starting at 0.5% formaldehyde). These effects are easily avoidable by protecting exposed skin for example, by wearing gloves. PPM or ppm may mean: parts per million, a measure of concentration pages per minute, a measure of speed often used to market printers or photocopiers portable pixmap, a graphics file format peak programme meter, a type of audio level meter, called peak meter Prediction by Partial Matching, a compression... A lesion is a non-specific term referring to abnormal tissue in the body. ... Contact dermatitis is a term for a skin reaction resulting from exposure to allergens or irritants. ... Erythema is an abnormal redness of the skin caused by capillary congestion. ...

Following exposure to contaminated air, the first effect is irritation of the mucous membranes of the eye and upper respiratory tract (nose and throat). The related symptoms are tingling, redness or burns to the nose and throat, nasal discharge and watery eyes. These symptoms are generally negligible to slight for formaldehyde concentrations below 1 ppm. They can become bothersome and even intolerable at higher concentrations mainly when they exceed 2 to 3 ppm. The mucous membranes (or mucosa) are linings of ectodermic origin, covered in epithelium, that line various body cavities and internal organs. ... The Upper respiratory tract refers to the the following parts of the respiratory system: nose and nasal passages paranasal sinuses throat or pharynx Upper respiratory tract infections are among the most common infections in the world. ...

In rare cases, formaldehyde causes sensitizing or allergic type changes in lung function. These are manifested by a decrease in lung capacity and by asthma attacks likely to recur at decreasing concentrations. These effects were observed with asthmatic and non-asthmatic subjects exposed to more than 2 ppm.(2) Nevertheless, there is no consensus in scientific literature that asthmatics have a more severe reaction to formaldehyde exposure than non-asthmatics. The allergenic effect of formaldehyde can be worsened by the presence of particles or dust (for example, wood dust), that trigger bronchial reactions even at concentrations below 2 ppm. An allergen is any substance (antigen), most often eaten or inhaled, that is recognized by the immune system and causes an allergic reaction. ... The bronchioles are the first airway branches that no longer contain cartilage. ...

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